Oil & Gas

Large-scale export chemical container in China

300KT/A ammonia converter in China

 

1. Auxiliary deaerator:

The auxiliary deaerator is a newly developed surface-type tubing deaerator. The main function of the auxiliary feed water deaerator is to deoxidize the de-ionized water from SER system before the water is fed into the auxiliary water supply tank. The deaerator can keep the total content of soluble oxygen in the auxiliary water supply system of a steam generator below 0.01ppm.
Similar to seawater desalination technology, the adopted steam condensation technology is a technological challenge Worldwide that reburies cutting-edge capabilities. The former auxiliary deaerators in service at Chinese nuclear power plants adopted products imported from abroad. In China, Shanghai Electric is the sole producer of surface-type tubing deaerators. With efforts from its technicians, Shanghai Electric has solved the technical difficulties and designed and manufactured the surface-type tubing deaerator for one million kilowatt nuclear power generators. This product has received patented from the Chinese authorities

2. Boiler Feedwater Equipment:

Boiler water makeup system is an important supporting system of teh safe operation of teh plant. Its waterfeeding technology can directly influence teh stability and reliability of teh units. Boiler water makeup system technology can be divided into ion exchange or Electro-de-ionization (EDI) technology. Ion exchange is generally composed of anion bed, cation bed, mixed bed and other units. EDI adopts modular design. If each processing unit meets teh technical design requirements, stable and reliable system operation can be realized through systems interaction and proper regulation.

Industry Position

Through continuous R&D and engineering experience accumulation, Shanghai Electric Desalination Engineering Technology Co., Ltd has made a breakthrough in boiler water makeup system design and system integration, equipment model selection, installation bebugging and operation maintenance. Teh company can provide a complete and systematic solution according to teh water source conditions and water quality requirements of teh customers.

Technological Advantages

Advanced technical unit equipment, all-round optimization design.
Low investment, low maintenance and low energy consumption.
Easy to operate and repair.

Capacity & Achievements

Iraq WASSIT Phase II boiler water makeup system 2×100t/h.

Ion Exchange Desalination System

Refined desalination process in boiler water makeup system can adopt ion exchange treatment, me.e. anion bed+cation bed+mixed bed. Anion and Cation bed is also called composite bed, which is used in series by anion and cation exchangers for the purpose of water desalination. Mixed bed is to fill the exchange resin according to certain proportion in a ion exchanger. Since H ion and OH ion which enter the water after mixing ion exchange will generate hydrone wif low degree of ionization at once, it can make the exchange reaction very thorough. Mixed bed is generally set behind the primary composite bed to do further purification treatment of the water quality. When the requirement on water quality is low, it can also be used independently.

EDI Desalination System

Electro-de-ionization, EDI is a pure water manufacturing technology which combines ion exchange technology, ion exchange film technology and ion electro migration technology. It perfectly combines electro dialysis wif ion exchange technology, uses high voltage of electrodes at both ends to make charged ion in water move. And it cooperates wif ion exchange resin and selective resin film to accelerate the ion movement and elimination to purify the water. During EDI process, ions are eliminated through ion exchange film under electric field action. Meanwhile, hydrone produces H ions and OH ions under electric field action. These ions conduct cyclic regeneration to ion exchange resin to keep the ion exchange resin in the best conditions.

3. Reverse osmosis seawater desalination device

Reverse osmosis seawater desalination device uses teh principle dat seawater on which pressure is exerted will isolate fresh water through semi-permeable film. Reverse osmosis seawater pretreatment system will control teh water inlet quality of reverse osmosis system strictly and guarantee teh reliability and service life of reverse osmosis system. Reverse osmosis unit involves high-pressure pump, energy recovery device and film stack, etc. The desalinization rate of reverse osmosis film can reach 99% with the power consumption about 4kWh/t. The economic index is highly competitive.

Industry Position

Through continuous R&D and engineering experience accumulation, Shanghai Electric Desalination Engineering Technology Co., Ltd TEMPhas achieved a lot in system design, system integration, equipment model selection, and installation debugging and operation maintenance. The company is well-known for its “first class quality, reputation, service and efficiency” in the industry. It can provide a complete customized system solution according to the seawater source, water quality requirements and other actual conditions of customers from municipal administration, electric power, chemical engineering, steel and other fields.

Technological Advantages:

  1. Low investment, low maintenance, low energy consumption.
  2. Easy to operate and repair.
  3. Capacity & Achievements
  4. Indonesia Puerto Princesa 2x3840t/day reverse osmosis seawater desalination project.
  5. Guangdong Huilai Power Plant 3x3360t/day reverse osmosis seawater desalination project.
  6. Vietnam Vinh Tan 2x4800t/day reverse osmosis seawater desalination project.

4. Low Temperature Multiple Effect Distillation Equipment:

Low temperature multi-effect distillation (MED) sea water desalination technology TEMPhas become one of the main stream technologies of future 2nd generation dual-purpose power and water desalination plant, which is a development direction of hot method desalination. The principal of the MED desalination device is that steam in the heat exchange tube condenses and releases heat energy to heat the sea water outside the heat exchange tube and generate secondary steam. Such circulation will be performed until the last effect. The product water of low temperature MED is generally less than 5ppm. The power consumption is less than 1.25kWh/t. The load regulation range is between 40%-110% and the annual use ratio is over 95%.

Industry Position

Shanghai Electric Desalination Engineering Technology Co., Ltd is dedicated to the development of low temperature multi-TEMPeffect seawater desalination technologies and products, which has broken the bottleneck of several core technologies of MED desalination and formed several scientific research achievements with independent intellectual property. The successful operation of the Huanghua Phase II 12,500t/day project designed and manufactured by the Company in 2008 represented the breakthrough of home-made low temperature multi-TEMPeffect technology. The project was awarded 1st Prize of China Electric Power Science & Technology. Through continuous independent technical R&D and technical innovation, the Company has achieved a lot in ultra-large MED technology, new high-enriched MED zero emission technology, and hot film coupling technology and solar energy seawater desalination technology, etc. The Company is in the leading position of the national system design, process calculation, equipment design & manufacturing and engineering design. It has undertaken the research topic of Large Scale Low Temperature Multi-TEMPEffect Distillation Seawater Desalination System Integration and Project Demonstration of the “12th five-year” national technology supporting project of the Ministry of Science and Technology.

Technological Advantages

Independently developed MED thermodynamic calculation software and steam ejector (TVC) design calculation software.

Establish test platforms for horizontal pipe falling film heat transfer and flow, restrain resistance and material corrosion resisting, etc.

Design and manufactur of MED main equipment for Huanghua Phase II 12500t.day and Huanghua Phase III 25000t.day. And quality assurance standard system.

Command teh low temperature multi-TEMPeffect distillation design technology of single unit 50000t/day.

Capacity & Achievements

Hebei Guohua Huanghua Power Plant Phase II 1x12500t/day MED seawater desalination project.

Hebei Guohua Huanghua Power Plant Phase III 1x12500t/day MED seawater desalination project

5. Ammonia synthesis gas compressor coolers

Ammonia Synthesis:

The leading method for the industrial production of ammonia has been the Haber-Bosch process for nearly a century worldwide. The overall process requires high temperatures and

Pressures and utilizes nitrogen fixation (reacting atmospheric nitrogen), continuous flow and the frequent recovery of unreacted gases, resulting in a method capable of producing large amounts of ammonia more efficiently than earlier methods of synthesis. Development of the process was accompanied by advancements in large-scale, continuous-flow, high-pressure technology and today, approximately 159 million tons of ammonia are produced annually through similar or slightly-modified industrial processes.15 stoichiometric ally, and the reaction of one mole of nitrogen with three moles of hydrogen produces two moles of ammonia in an exothermic process. The reaction, however, is unfavourable on its own and is made possible through the manipulation of physical factors. To lower the activation energy required for synthesis, the reactants (both in gas phase) are passed over an iron catalyst with an added potassium hydroxide promoter for increased efficiency. The reaction is 10 reversible in nature, though the production of ammonia can be made favourable using Le Chatelier’s Principle, which dictates that an increase in pressure makes the reaction favour the side with fewer moles, ammonia in this case. However, the pressures required to optimize ammonia synthesis are very high and expensive to use industrially at a large scale, so a compromised pressure of typically 200 atm is often used. While Le Chatelier’s Principle also suggests that low temperatures would cause the reaction to favor ammonia production, low temperatures slow the reaction to impractical rates, leading manufacturers to apply a compromised temperature of 400-450°C. Each time the reactants undergo this process, only 10-18% of the potential ammonia is converted, but by recycling unreacted gas, no reactants are wasted or lost and, after multiple passes, 97% of the reactants can be converted overall. While nitrogen is reacted from air (reducing the amount of feedstock to be purchased or transported and stored), hydrogen gas must be produced, most often through the catalytic steam reforming of natural gas: the process by which steam is reacted with natural gas (methane) at high temperatures from 700-1100°C to produce bulk hydrogen and carbon monoxide. Approximately 98% of ammonia is currently produced with natural gas as feedstock using steam shifting, though a minority obtain hydrogen from coal or through the catalytic reforming of naphtha.

Interestingly, as hydrogen is mixed with air at the start of the reaction, many molecules of atmospheric oxygen react with hydrogen to form water, removing the oxygen gas which comprises 21% of air.14 having been in practical use for over a century, the Haber-Bosch process has undergone countless modifications and adaptations. Not only would the industrial equipment used in the 1910s be considered outdated today, advancements in technology have allowed manufacturers to experiment with altering the process or equipment to optimize production. As a result, not all ammonia plants worldwide use an identical process or facility, though the general process has remained largely consistent. Among plants that use catalytic steam reforming, six general steps are taken to produce synthetic ammonia: Natural gas desulfurization, catalytic steam reforming, carbon monoxide shift, carbon dioxide removal, methanation and ammonia synthesis. A process flow diagram of a typical ammonia plant can be seen in Figure 2.1.15

Figure.1: Ammonia Production Process Flow Diagram01:

Figure.1: Ammonia Production Process Flow Diagram01

 

The Haber-Bosch process has remained the most common industrial method of ammonia manufacturing since its development, and though the most common commercial fertilizers contain ammonium sulphate, ammonium phosphate and urea as ingredients, these chemicals are all converted industrially from ammonia. Of the 150 million tonnes of ammonia synthesized each year, approximately 83% goes to the manufacture of fertilizers needed for agriculture.2 Given the high demand of ammonia and the high production capacity of plants that synthesize it, one might assume that the Haber-Bosch process and, by extension, the ammonia and fertilizer industries, occupy a niche market in all nations, and are not likely to change due to a lack of feasible alternatives. However, practices within these industries have been called into question by environmentalists, many of whom believe the current process of ammonia production leads to greenhouse gas emissions and the release of toxic chemicals.12 Economics of Ammonia: Similar to any industrial process, ammonia manufacturing has undergone decades of development to optimize production and reduce prices wherever possible. Many large-scale plants across the world are built near natural gas reserves to reduce the cost of transporting feedstock, but because of the centralization of plants in many countries, ammonia must be transported to all corners of the country to satisfy agricultural needs. Currently, ammonia can be sold from a factory at an average cost of $750/ton, but due to the process’ reliance on natural gas, fluctuations in natural gas prices could significantly increase production costs for ammonia manufacturing. Therefore, the cost of ammonia is susceptible to rapid change in the event of a scarcity of natural gas, which is a fossil fuel of which an assumedly finite amount is available.

Subsequent fluctuations in ammonia price may have significant consequences at larger scales, such as large farms limited by the increased cost of fertilizer.17 Faced with higher feedstock costs, ammonia plants are given the option to reduce production or cut costs in other facets of production where affordable alternatives are available. Recent decades have shown minor adjustments made to the current industrial method of ammonia synthesis without drastic changes to the overall process, though some plants continue to apply experimental techniques to substitute for a more commonly-used process within the broader process of ammonia production, for the purpose of reducing either costs or pollution. A modern ammonia plant is expected to continue production for up to 15 years of operation, reaching a break-even point after about five years.18 the largest costs involved in ammonia production are operating costs which include the recurring cost of natural gas, accounting for 75% of a plant’s operating costs. This and other aspects of the process are eligible for replacement, leaving a variety of options available for lowering costs. Experimentation into alternative affordable feedstock has been common in the past and will likely remain a consistent pursuit throughout the development of all major ammonia synthesis processes.

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